Figure 1. The confirmatory factor model of the Japanese version of the 9-item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9).
Values on the single-headed arrows are partial standardized regression weights. Values on the double-headed arrows are correlation coefficients. A higher value indicates a stronger causal relationship. The circles of e1-e9 indicate errors (measurement residual).

From: Psychometric Evaluation of the Japanese 9-Item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire and Its Association with Decision Conflict and Patient Factors in Japanese Primary Care