Table 1. Summary of Published Findings Pertaining to ROCK in Diabetic Vascular Complications.

From: ROCK Inhibition May Stop Diabetic Kidney Disease

Function/observation References
Mesangial cells ・Activated by glucose, TNF-α, TGF-β, angiotensin II, and VEGF (8), (11), (16), (17), (18), (65)
・ROCK inhibitor-treated diabetic mice exhibit reduced glomerular sclerosis and macrophage infiltration
・Mediates HIF1-induced fibrotic responses (CTGF, PAI-1)
・Regulates the expression of MCP-1 and M-CSF by controlling AP-1 and NF-κB
Podocytes ・Activated by glucose, TGF-β, and ROS (14), (16), (59)
・ROCK inhibitor-treated diabetic rodents exhibit reduced albuminuria and apoptosis
・Forced expression of ROCK results in albuminuria and apoptosis
・Regulates the expression of Notch ligand and mitochondrial morphology
Glomerular endothelium ・Activated by AGEs (66)
・Mediates permeability, morphology, and EMT
・Regulates the expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines
Tubules ・ROCK inhibitor-treated diabetic rats exhibit reduced interstitial fibrosis (19), (46)
・Regulates sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced EMT
Pericytes ・ROCK inhibitor reduces retinal VEGF expression in diabetic rats (49)
・Regulates PDGF-induced VEGF expression
Endothelium ・ROCK inhibitor reduces leukocyte adhesion and the number of damaged cells in diabetic rats
・Regulates the expression of ICAM1
Myelin sheath ・ROCK inhibitor treated diabetic rats exhibit improvement of motor nerve conduction velocity (10)
・Regulates distribution of adhesion molecules
・Pathogenic roles in other cell types in nervous system in not determined
Large vessels
VSMC ・Activated by static pressure, angiotensin II, thrombin, PDGF, extracellular nucleotides, and urotensin (13), (54)
・Mediates cell proliferation, migration, Ca2+ sensitization, and contraction
・Regulates the expression of IL-6, MCP-1, MIF, ROS formation, and cyclophilin A secretion
Endothelium ・Activated by angiotensin II, IL-1β, thrombin, ER stress, and lysophosphatidic acid (38), (54), (56)
・Mediates barrier function and permeability
・Regulates the expression of E-selectin, MCP-1, VCAM1, NO production, NADPH oxidase activity
Inflammatory cells ・Regulates chemotaxis and foam cells formation by inhibiting reverse cholesterol transport (63), (67)