Table 1. Applications of CAP Activator.There are several applications activating CAP. Electrical/transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulator are already used in the clinic.Abbreviations: VNS; vagus nerve stimulation

From: Neuroimmune Communication in the Kidney

Modalities Advantages Disadvantages Clinical application Clinical trials Or pilot study
Ultrasound Non-invasive Uncertain mechanism
Implantable device (Electrical stimulation) Technically easy Invasive Nonselective Cluster headache
Functional disorder of intestine
Rheumatoid arthritis (38)
Crohn’s disease (39)
Transcutaneous VNS (Non-invasive VNS) Epilepsy (61)
Depression (62)
Migraine (63), (64)
Cluster headache (65)
Optogenetic stimulation Selective stimulation Invasive
Technically difficult
Drugs (nicotine, GTS-21) Easy clinical application Off-target effects